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A casabe is a thin flatbread made from bitter cassava root without leavening. It was originally produced by the indigenous Arawak and Carib peoples because these roots were a common plant of the rain forests where they lived.
In eastern Venezuela , many indigenous groups still make casabe. It is their chief bread-like staple. To make casabe , the starchy root of bitter cassava is ground to a pulp, then squeezed to expel a milky, bitter liquid called yare.
This carries the poisonous substances with it out of the pulp. Traditionally, this squeezing is done in a sebucan , an 8 to foot 3. The sebucan usually is hung from a tree branch or ceiling pole, and it has a closed bottom with a loop that is attached to a fixed stick or lever, which is used to stretch the sebucan.
When the lever is pushed down, stretching the sebucan, the helical weaving pattern causes the strainer to squeeze the pulp inside.
This is similar to the action of a Chinese finger trap. The pulp is spread in thin, round cakes about 2 feet 0. Thin and crisp cakes of casabe are often broken apart and eaten like crackers.
Like bread, casabe can be eaten alone or with other dishes. Thicker casabe usually are eaten slightly moistened. A sprinkle of a few drops of liquid is enough to transform a dry casabe into soft smooth bread.
Tapioca pearls, also known as boba in some cultures, are produced by passing the moist starch through a sieve under pressure. Pearl tapioca is a common ingredient in South , East and Southeast Asian desserts such as falooda , kolak , sago soup , and in sweet drinks such as bubble tea , fruit slush and taho , where they provide a chewy contrast to the sweetness and smooth texture of the drink.
Small pearls are preferred for use in puddings. In Brazil, the pearls are cooked with wine or other liquid to add flavor and are called sagu.
Large pearls are preferred for use in drinks. These pearls most often are brown, not white, due to the sugar added and are traditionally used in black or green tea drinks.
They are used as various colors in shave ice and hot drinks. In addition to their use in puddings and beverages, tapioca pearls may be used in cakes.
Processing of the cassava flour into tapioca pearls requires the intermediate step of a product called tapioca grit. Tapioca grit is dried cassava flour that is partially gelatinized so that it looks like flakes or irregularly-shaped granules.
In contrast, making starch pearls uses a different process of roasting. To form the pearls, the tapioca grit can be cut or extruded into the shape of pearls, either small 3mm or large mm.
Tapioca pearls have many unique properties that contribute to texture and mouth feel. Many of these physical properties are a result of its starch composition and are significantly affected by processing.
Tapioca pearls are characteristically soft and chewy, with a prominent elastic texture and translucent appearance. The cassava plant is easily propagated by stem-cutting, grows well in low-nutrient soils, and can be harvested every two months, although it takes ten months to grow to full maturity.
The plant provided much needed carbohydrates and other nutrients. Tapioca root can be used to manufacture biodegradable bags developed from a tapioca resin of the plant as a viable plastic substitute.
Not only is it biodegradable, but it can be composted , is renewable , reusable , recyclable and sustainable. Other tapioca resin products include reusable gloves, capes and aprons.
Tapioca starch, used commonly for starching shirts and garments before ironing , may be sold in bottles of natural gum starch to be dissolved in water or in spray cans.
In Brazilian cuisine , tapioca is used for different types of meals. In beiju or biju , the tapioca is moistened, strained through a sieve to become a coarse flour, then sprinkled onto a hot griddle or pan, where the heat makes the starchy grains fuse into a flatbread which resembles a grainy pancake.
Then it may be buttered and eaten as a toast its most common use as a breakfast dish , or it may be filled or topped with either salgados salty pastry recipes or doces sweet pastry recipes , which define the kind of meal the tapioca is used for: Choices for fillings range from butter, cheese, ham, bacon, various kinds of meat , chocolate , fruits such as ground coconut, condensed milk , chocolate with sliced pieces of banana or strawberry , among others.
This kind of tapioca dish is usually served warm. A regional dessert called sagu is also made in Southern Brazil from tapioca pearls cooked with cinnamon and cloves in red wine.
The cassava root is known by different names throughout the country: The fine-grained tapioca starch is called polvilho, and it is classified as either "sweet" or "sour".
The final result is an aromatic, chewy and elastic kind of bread that is ubiquitous across the country. In Colombia and Venezuela , arepas may be made with tapioca flour rather than cornmeal.
Tapioca arepas probably predate cornmeal arepas; [ citation needed ] among traditional cultures of the Caribbean the name for them is casabe.
While frequently associated with tapioca pudding, a dessert in the United States, tapioca is also used in other courses.
Tapioca syrup is sometimes added as a sweetener to a wide variety of foods and beverages as an alternative to sucrose or corn syrup. Tapioca is a staple food from which dishes, such as pepper pot, and alcohol is made.
It may be used for teeth cleaning, a provision cooked with meats or fish, and in desserts such as cassava pone.
Specifically in rural Cuba early in Spanish rule, tapioca's popularity grew due to the ability of the natives to cultivate the crop and the ease of transport to nearby Spanish settlements, eventually impacting the way land and people were divided in that early imperial era.
In various Asian countries, tapioca pearls are widely used and are known as sagudana , sabudana or shabudana pearl sago or "sabba akki" in Kannada.
The pearls are used to make snacks. Tapioca pearls are essential ingredients for Taiwanese bubble tea. In Southeast Asia, the cassava root is commonly cut into slices, wedges or strips, fried, and served as tapioca chips , similar to potato chips , wedges or french fries.
Another method is to boil large blocks until soft, and serve them with grated coconut as a dessert, either slightly salted or sweetened, usually with palm sugar syrup.
In Thailand, this dish is called mansampalang. Commercially prepared tapioca has many uses. Tapioca powder is commonly used as a thickener for soups and other liquid foods.
It is also used as a binder in pharmaceutical tablets and natural paints. The flour is used to make tender breads, cakes, biscuits, cookies, and other delicacies see also Maida flour.
Tapioca flakes are used to thicken the filling of pies made with fruits having a high water content. A typical recipe for tapioca jelly can be made by washing 2 tablespoonfuls of tapioca, pouring a pint of water over it, and soaking for three hours.
The mixture is placed over low heat and simmered until quite clear. If too thick, a little boiling water can be added.
It can be sweetened with white sugar, flavored with coconut milk or a little wine, and eaten alone or with cream.
Krupuk , or Indonesian traditional crackers, is a major use of tapioca starch in Indonesia. The most common krupuk is kerupuk kampung or kerupuk aci made of tapioca starch.
The tapioca starch might be flavoured with minced shrimp as krupuk udang prawn cracker or krupuk ikan fish cracker. The thinly sliced or sometimes quite thick cassava were also sun dried and deep fried to be made as kripik singkong crackers cassava chips or tapioca chips.
Tapai is made by fermenting large blocks with a yeast-like bacteria culture to produce a sweet and slightly alcoholic dessert. Further fermentation releases more liquids and alcohol producing Tuak , a sour alcoholic beverage.
A variation of the chips popular amongst the Malays is kerepek pedas , where the crisps are coated with a hot, sweet and tangy chili and onion paste, or sambal , usually with fried anchovies and peanuts added.
During religious fasts , sabudana is a popular alternative to rice-based foods. Consumed with curd or milk or prepared as a Khichdi , sago is particularly popular choice during the fasts of Navratri , Ekadashi , 'Ombubachi', Nilshosthi, and Ramadan.
Traditionally, tapioca pearls are used as the food for children, elderly and ill people, mixed with milk or water. Faluda, a popular food, is also prepared with curd, ice and other ingredient during summer.
Tapioca pearls are a common ingredient of traditional Indian dishes such as kheer. Tapioca pearls are used to make Sabudana khichdi , which is commonly eaten during vrat.
The result is a foodstuff called gari. Fermentation is also used in other places such as Indonesia see Tapai.
The fermentation process also reduces the level of antinutrients , making the cassava a more nutritious food. A project called "BioCassava Plus" uses bioengineering to grow cassava with lower cyanogenic glycosides combined with fortification of vitamin A , iron and protein to improve the nutrition of people in sub-Saharan Africa.
Cassava is harvested by hand by raising the lower part of the stem and pulling the roots out of the ground, then removing them from the base of the plant.
The upper parts of the stems with the leaves are plucked off before harvest. Cassava undergoes post-harvest physiological deterioration PPD once the tubers are separated from the main plant.
The tubers, when damaged, normally respond with a healing mechanism. However, the same mechanism, which involves coumaric acids , starts about 15 minutes after damage, and fails to switch off in harvested tubers.
It continues until the entire tuber is oxidized and blackened within two to three days after harvest, rendering it unpalatable and useless.
PPD is related to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species ROS initiated by cyanide release during mechanical harvesting.
Cassava shelf life may be increased up to three weeks by overexpressing a cyanide insensitive alternative oxidase, which suppressed ROS by fold.
Fresh cassava can be preserved like potato, using thiabendazole or bleach as a fungicide, then wrapping in plastic, coating in wax or freezing.
While alternative methods for PPD control have been proposed, such as preventing ROS effects by use of plastic bags during storage and transport or coating the roots with wax, and freezing roots, such strategies have proved to be economically or technically impractical, leading to breeding of cassava varieties more tolerant to PPD and with improved durability after harvest.
A major cause of losses during cassava storage is infestation by insects. These pests can cause up to 80 percent crop loss, which is extremely detrimental to the production of subsistence farmers.
The African cassava mosaic virus causes the leaves of the cassava plant to wither, limiting the growth of the root. Sometime in the lates, a mutation occurred in Uganda that made the virus even more harmful, causing the complete loss of leaves.
Cassava brown streak virus disease has been identified as a major threat to cultivation worldwide.
A wide range of plant parasitic nematodes have been reported associated with cassava worldwide. These include Pratylenchus brachyurus , Rotylenchulus reniformis , Helicotylenchus spp.
Galls later merge as the females grow and enlarge, and they interfere with water and nutrient supply. It is therefore possible that extensive galling can be observed even at low densities following infection.
They have not been shown to cause direct damage to the enlarged storage roots, but plants can have reduced height if there was loss of enlarged root weight.
Research on nematode pests of cassava is still in the early stages; results on the response of cassava is, therefore, not consistent, ranging from negligible to seriously damaging.
The use of nematicides has been found to result in lower numbers of galls per feeder root compared to a control, coupled with a lower number of rots in the storage roots.
Nematicide use in cassava is neither practical nor sustainable; the use of tolerant and resistant cultivars is the most practical and sustainable management method.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the unrelated-New World plant, see Yucca. Details of cassava plants. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Manihot esculenta Crantz . Janipha aipi Pohl J. Presl Janipha manihot L. Kunth Jatropha aipi Pohl Göpp. Jatropha diffusa Pohl Steud.
Jatropha digitiformis Pohl Steud. Jatropha flabellifolia Pohl Steud. Jatropha loureiroi Pohl Steud.